What Is Lycopene?

What Is Lycopene?

Lycopene is a powerful carotenoid antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. Red tomatoes are especially available. It is not an important nutrient for humans, but it can be a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of many human diseases. Since the publication of the previous book on lycopene, the role of lycopene and tomatoes in human health has progressed considerably. The initial research focuses on cancer, lycopene and tomatoes in human nutrition and health. This is the next important step in documenting progress in understanding chemistry, bioavailability and metabolism. Mechanisms of action of lycopene; and its role in the prevention of other human diseases than cancer, as indicated in various chapters of the book.The book contains chapters on genetic polymorphism. and the relationship between lycopene and cardiovascular, cardiometabolic, oral health and other disorders, including male infertility, skin diseases, respiratory diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. The book provides information on the regulatory aspects of natural health products, and in particular lycopene, which provide a better understanding of the sector. The content of the book has been carefully selected to provide readers with the most up-to-date information on the bioactive substances of lycopene and tomato.

Recent dietary recommendations to increase consumption of antioxidant fruits and vegetables have sparked interest in the role of lycopene in disease prevention. However, the evidence to date is mainly instructive and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of lycopene and to develop guidelines for healthy eating and disease prevention. Other areas of research include epidemiological studies based on serum lycopene levels, bioavailability and effects of dietary factors, long-term dietary intervention studies, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene and its biological significance, interactions with other carotenoids and antioxidants and disease prevention mechanisms. Many epidemiological studies suggest that the risk of cancer can be reduced by a positive change in diet and a healthy lifestyle, which makes us more positive about the possibility of minimizing cancer morbidity and mortality. Cancer prevention can be achieved in 32-35% of cases through diet and consumption of functional foods rich in bioactive substances. A range of functional foods rich in bioactive substances such as lycopene, β-carotene and other phytochemicals for the prevention of cancer. Some scientific reports on the effects of lycopene and B-carotene on natural foods and on the synthetic effects of cancer prevention are not consistent. Researchers will determine whether purified phytochemicals have the same health benefits as phytochemicals found in whole foods.

It is currently thought that dietary supplements do not have the same health benefits as a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, as clinical trials of individual antioxidants have no consistent side effects. This review is based on the growing interest of the role of carotenoids, especially lycopene and beta-carotene, in the prevention and treatment of cancer, which is consistent with the hypothesis that micronutrients of synthetic origin can not replace the benefits of a diet rich in natural nutrients. It has been shown that a synthetic form of β-carotene has a slight pro-oxidative effect, while it naturally has an antioxidant effect. For this reason, many breeding programs in the field of vegetable crops are aimed at creating high quality organic product types, characterized by a high content of lycopene, B-carotene, ascorbic acid and other natural compounds with antioxidant activity. . They are an appropriate starting material for the production of natural products with a high content of bioactive compounds, which contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases. You can increase your intake of antioxidants by eating foods with more antioxidants than using supplements. In conclusion, we support evidence that it is preferable for antioxidant micronutrients to be derived from the natural consumption of plant foods rather than dietary supplements.

Although the comparative amounts of bioavailability of lycopene from different tomato products are unknown, lycopene from processed tomato products appears to be more bioavailable than lycopene from raw tomatoes. The release of lycopene from the food matrix is ​​due to treatment, the presence of dietary lipids, and heat. Heat isomerization from all-trans to cis-compliant increases the bioavailability of lycopene. The bioavailability of lycopene is also influenced by the dose and the presence of other carotenoids such as β-carotene. Johnson et al 70 found that the bioavailability of lycopene was significantly higher when taken by carotene than alone.

In a multicenter-control case study, relationship between antioxidant status and chronic myocardial infarction. The subjects were recruited from 10 European countries to maximize exposure diversity within the study. Antioxidants in adipose tissue, which are better indicators of long-term exposure than antioxidants in the blood, have been used as markers of antioxidant status. Immediately after infarction, biopsies were extracted from adipose tissue and examined for various carotenoids. After adjusting for a number of nutritional variables, it was found that only lycopene and non-B-carotene concentrations were protected. A study conducted by Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore found that smokers with low levels of circulating carotenoids had a higher risk of subsequent adverse events in myocardial infarction. In a population study comparing the Lithuanian and Swedish cohorts with different death rates from coronary artery disease, it was also found that lower blood levels of lycopene were associated with increased risk and death from coronary artery disease.

It has been suggested that the Mediterranean diet, rich in vegetables and fruits, including tomatoes, is responsible for lowering cancer rates in this region. Food consumption of tomatoes and tomato products has been shown to be associated with a lower risk of cancer. A large number of cancers are included in many epidemiological studies. A high use of tomatoes was associated with a case-control study with protective effects against digestive tract cancers and a 50% reduction in cancer mortality rates at all sites in the elderly. American population. The most impressive conclusion came from a follow-up study of US health experts who assessed the function of various carotenoids and retinols using a prostate cancer incidence questionnaire. . . The estimated use of lycopene from different tomato products is inversely associated with a degree m associated with a risk of prostate cancer.

Lycopene is one of the most potent antioxidants, with twice the capacity to eliminate singlet oxygen such as B-carotene and ten times the capacity of α-tocopherol. It is the most abundant carotenoid in human plasma. Its content is influenced by various biological factors and lifestyle factors. Lycopene and other carotenoids concentrate on the very low and very low density of serum lipoprotein fractions due to their lipophilic nature. Lycopene also focuses on the adrenal gland, testes, liver and prostate, where it is called carotenoid. Lycopene levels in various human and rat tissues. The distribution of specific lycopene may play an important role in the role of this antioxidant. However, unlike other carotenoids, levels of lycopene in serum or tissues do not match well with total fruit and vegetable consumption.

It has been hypothesized that lycopene inhibits carcinogenesis and atherogenesis by protecting essential cellular biomolecules, including lipids, lipoproteins, proteins, and DNA. In healthy individuals, diet without lycopene and tomato resulted in loss of lycopene and increased lipid oxidation, while lycopene supplementation increased serum lycopene levels and reduced endogenous oxidation of lipids, proteins, lipoproteins and DNA. Prostate cancer patients have low levels of lycopene and high oxidation of serum and proteins.The oxidation of low-density lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in the blood can play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Antioxidant nutrients are thought to slow down the development of atherosclerosis because they can prevent harmful oxidative processes. Many controlled clinical and epidemiological studies have highlighted the protective effects of vitamin E, related to antioxidant properties.

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