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How to identify and treat allergies?



Recognizing the allergic nature of the disorder is very important from the outset of the disease itself in order to treat the condition on time, and the patient will receive detailed instructions on avoiding allergens and how to take medication.

Allergy types and clinical presentation
Diagnosis
Avoiding allergens
Medicamentous therapy
Treatment of severe allergic reactions
Conclusion
Allergy types and clinical presentation
The symptoms of an allergy that lead to a patient being a doctor are the most frequent sneezing, clear nasal secretions, narrowing of the eyes and irritable cough.
The first trees (such as hazel, alder, hornbeam, birch, willow and oak) and plants (such as grasses, nettles, dandruff, and later ambrosia) begin flowering in spring, so the number of newly diagnosed and worsening pre-existing allergies in the family medicine clinic . Allergic rhinitis is most commonly seen, and allergic laryngitis, allergic dermatitis, asthma, as well as various food, drug, dust or pollen allergies are common.

The symptoms that bring a patient to the family medicine office are the most frequent sneezing, clear nasal secretions, narrowing of the eyes and irritable cough. These symptoms are usually associated with allergen exposure and are exacerbated upon contact with the allergen, such as the proximity of flowering trees, stay in a specific room, and exposure to dust in patients responding to dust, dust mites, or contact with dogs and cats (for animal hair allergies)

Sometimes the symptoms are not typical, but only a long-term irritant long-term cough without any other problems can be present. Therefore, for a long-term cough (ie, for a period longer than three weeks), it is always necessary to think about the diagnosis of a new allergic event.

Diagnosis
Allergic testing is commonly done on a dozen common allergens and is direct evidence of an allergic reaction.
After a clinical examination in an outpatient clinic, which includes a pharyngeal, nasal examination (so-called rhinoscopy, ie examination of the nasal cavity), auscultation of the heart and lungs, measurement of blood oxygen saturation, and spirometry (according to the physician's assessment), the doctor will treat patients who have not been diagnosed before allergy It is common to seek laboratory indicators of allergy.

Blood tests useful for the diagnosis of allergy are immunoglobulin E (IgE), which can be done in most clinical laboratories, but also the specific determination of RAST and RIST immunoglobulin for individual allergens that are done exclusively in specialized laboratories. A nasal swab can be routinely performed to prove allergy to eosinophils, which is evidence of an allergic reaction at the level of the nasal mucosa and confirms the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Allergic testing is commonly done on a dozen common allergens and is direct evidence of an allergic reaction.

Avoiding allergens
For proven allergies to pollen, grass or trees, it is advisable to try to avoid staying near a harmful allergen.
After clinical examination and insight into the laboratory work done, it is possible to diagnose the allergy and give the patient advice on how to proceed. In the treatment of allergic rhinitis (which is the most common allergic disease in the population), allergen avoidance is the most important measure - the patient is accordingly instructed how (if the allergen is known) to avoid exposure to an allergy-causing factor.

If the allergy is caused by household dust, it is advised to remove all unnecessary sources of dust (such as carpets, drapes, curtains, pillows, stuffed animals or tablecloths), frequent ventilation of the living quarters, regular cleaning of the same rooms as well as cleaning, ie. ventilation of sleeping mattresses.

Preventing allergic reactions caused by responding to animal hair (either dogs or cats) also requires avoiding contact with said animals. Such allergies are more commonly seen in pediatric than in the adult population. For proven allergies to pollen, grass or trees, it is advisable to try to avoid staying near a harmful allergen. There has been a lot of talk and talk lately about the pronounced allergic action of ambrosia and the community measures that are being applied to eradicate this highly allergenic plant.

Medicamentous therapy
If your allergy symptoms do not subside with antihistamines, your doctor may recommend corticosteroid preparations.
The next step in treating allergies is, of course, medication. These include, first of all, the so-called. antihistamines, which are medicines that successfully suppress allergy symptoms and bring relief to patients. There are several forms available in our market that effectively counteract allergy symptoms, relieve and prevent sneezing, eye tears, and cough. These are primarily loratidine, desloratidine, cetirizindichloride and bilastine. They are taken strictly as directed by the doctor, and the dose and time interval of the administration are determined according to the patient's condition and other indicators of the disease. The medicines in this group come in the form of pills, which are usually taken once a day, although the dose can be increased as needed.

If allergy symptoms do not subscribe to antihistamines, especially in cases of allergic rhinitis (ie, inflammation of the nasal mucosa), your doctor may recommend local therapy for allergic rhinitis - corticosteroid nasal sprays. These are drugs that at the level of the nasal mucosa reduce the allergic reaction, reduce the abundant secretion from the nose and target the excessive sneezing. Medicines from this group are also numerous in the market, with budesonide, mometasone-furoate and fluticasone-propionate being the main agents. The indication for their administration is set by a physician who prescribes the dose of the drug and the time interval for its administration.

It is important to note that the drugs in the latter group are not recommended to be taken constantly, but during periods of the most severe symptoms, since their long-term administration can lead to damage to the nasal mucosa, occasional nosebleeds and, in the long run, reduced odor. For the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis (inflammation of the eye joint), local corticosteroid drops are used, also at a strictly defined interval of time and only on the recommendation of a doctor.

Treatment of severe allergic reactions
In cases of severe allergic reactions, when antihistamines and topical nasal corticosteroids are not effective, other types of medication may be administered: corticosteroids in tablet form and inhalation drug therapy if the cough does not settle for antihistamines.

However, any additional therapy for severe allergic reactions requires additional diagnostic procedures. Thus, in case of severe allergic reactions accompanied by severe cough, it is always necessary to think of a possible diagnosis of allergic asthma, which is why pulmonary treatment should be done to prove the disease.

Furthermore, in conditions of severe nasal secretion and shortness of breath on the nose, when medications and topical sprays do not help, it is important to have an otolaryngological examination to exclude the possibility of nasal polyps, sinus disease, or other diseases of the nasal mucosa.

However, most allergic reactions consist of allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis, which are successfully treated with antihistamines, topical corticosteroid sprays and corticosteroid eye drops. This is a therapy that a family medicine specialist can quickly and qualitatively recommend after diagnosis, which brings relief to the patient and quality of life.

Conclusion
Physician-patient communication, i. detailed patient referrals to the nature of the disease, how to take the medication, the measures the patient must take independently to avoid allergens, and planning a treatment time interval remain the most important step in approaching allergic diseases.

A joint treatment plan and good doctor-patient communication ensures the best possible quality of treatment, as well as the prevention of complications of any disease - including allergies. For this reason, the relationship between the patient and the chosen GP is the basis for the treatment of each disease and for the long-term quality of life of all patients.


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