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allergy symptoms



Symptoms of allergic diseases depend on the substance (allergen) that triggers the allergic reaction and on the organ system in which this substance manifests its action. Respiratory symptoms are most often dominated by the effects of allergens introduced into the body by inhalation. Ingestion of allergens into the body is dominated by symptoms of the digestive system or skin, less often the respiratory system. Allergens that come into contact with the body through the skin cause the most common skin problems.

 

Upper respiratory allergic diseases

Allergic diseases of the lower respiratory tract

Skin allergic diseases

Allergic reactions to food or medicine

Symptoms of allergic disease

Upper respiratory allergic diseases

In children, allergic rhinitis is often associated with recurrent middle ear inflammation.

Signs of allergic disease of the upper respiratory system are: swelling of the nasal mucosa with difficulty breathing on the nose, increased secretion of the nose, itching of the nose, sneezing, reduction or even complete disappearance of sense of smell, itching and narrowing of the eyes, itching of the ducts, itching of the palate, sore throat. In children, allergic rhinitis is often associated with recurrent middle ear inflammation. Symptoms of an associated disease (eg middle ear inflammation, chronic paranasal sinusitis or allergic asthma) can dominate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and make it difficult to diagnose.

 

Seasonal nature - repeated recurrence of these problems every year at the same time suggests an allergic basis for upper respiratory tract disease. Seasonal allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis occur in spring and / or fall. Problems are caused by pollen of different plants depending on the flowering season, e.g. hazel in February, birch in March and April, grasses from March to May, ambrosia from August to October. Although the flora of Croatia is diverse and uneven, and the occurrence of pollen allergies in some plants is regionally specific (eg olives - Istria and Dalmatia), due to the easy transport of pollen by wind over longer distances, it is difficult for some plants to restrict regionally the presence of allergen-causing allergens in some plants. reactions (eg ambrosia) which can also make it difficult to diagnose.

 

Symptoms of year-round allergic rhinitis (less frequent and / or conjunctivitis) are somewhat more difficult to recognize. They do not occur seasonally but occasionally during the year, regardless of the flowering season of individual plants, and sometimes they are really year-round with changes in the intensity of the problems. Symptoms occur and vary depending on contact with the allergen constantly or occasionally present at a given moment (eg dust mites, house dust, cat or dog epithelium, feathers, mold spores). Some patients may have year-round allergic rhinitis with seasonal exacerbations due to simultaneous sensitization to year-round and seasonal allergens.

 

Allergic diseases of the lower respiratory tract

The most common symptoms of allergic disease of the lower respiratory tract are: dry, irritable cough (more often at night), feeling of heaviness or pressure in the chest, feeling of difficulty breathing or suffocating, whistling and / or wheezing while breathing, heavier endurance. The problems can also be seasonal in nature or occur throughout the year depending on contact with the allergen or group of allergens causing the allergic disease. Often times the triggers (symptoms) of allergic disease symptoms, especially the lower respiratory tract, can be non-specific - e.g. respiratory infection, physical exertion, emotional stress, exposure to cold air, high humidity in the air - foggy weather, tobacco smoke, staying in a dusty place. This can also make it difficult to make a correct diagnosis.

 

Unlike airway infection, which is usually accompanied by fever and disappears after a short period of time spontaneously or with antibiotic therapy (depending on the cause of the disease), allergy symptoms persist for much longer or recur, and are only relieved with appropriate medication.

 

Skin allergic diseases

Urticaria may not necessarily be allergic in nature, it can also occur in certain infections, exposures to physical agents, and in some systemic or hereditary diseases.

Skin allergic diseases present as atopic dermatitis, urticaria and contact dermatitis.

 

Atopic dermatitis (neurodermitis) is the most common chronic skin disease of childhood. It occurs in about twenty percent of children, usually starting in infancy, independent of diet (most often it is not possible to prove a link between a specific allergen and the onset of the disease), often while the infant is still exclusively on the breast milk diet. Skin changes are presented by dryness, redness and itching of specific skin areas such as joints of the limbs, neck and cheeks, but they can also appear irregularly anywhere on the skin. Characteristic of these changes is a prolonged presence with occasional exacerbations. As the baby grows, skin changes over the years tend to gradually regress.

 

Urticaria (hives) occurs in 20% of people during their lifetime (usually in childhood). It is manifested by the appearance of urticules - sharply restricted, red, raised areas of the skin accompanied by itching. Changes occur due to swelling and redness of the surface layers of the skin, they can occur anywhere on the skin, single or multiple, once or on mosses with a definite duration (usually 2-3 days). Urticaria is most commonly caused by food or medicine, less commonly by stings or contact with insects. It may not necessarily be allergic in nature, it can also occur in certain infections, exposure to physical agents (cold, sun), in some systemic or hereditary diseases.

 

Contact allergic dermatitis occurs as a result of prolonged or repeated exposure of a particular skin area to an allergen. The skin at the point of contact is red, slightly swollen, with the appearance of blisters, cracks or erosion of the skin and strong moisture. The feeling of burning and tightening of the affected part of the skin dominates, itching less frequently.

 

The most common allergens for the occurrence of contact allergic dermatitis are nickel, chromium, cobalt, mercury compounds, formaldehyde, detergents, plastics, cosmetics, medicines (drug contact), gum, some food products (contact - celery, parsley, pepper, fish, etc.) and wood dust, flour, animal hair ... Like urticaria, it does not have to have an allergic backing.

 

Allergic reactions to food or medicine

Allergic reactions to food or medicine can be manifested by itching, urticaria, perioral redness and itching, burning sensation or swelling of the oral mucosa, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and even breathing problems. Problems occur after contact of the oral mucosa with a particular food or medicine or ingestion of the above. Symptoms similar to those that occur with food and drug allergies can be caused by a variety of chemical compounds introduced into the body that can trigger different reactions using the components of the defense system. Also, various congenital enzymatic and metabolic disorders can be the cause of adverse reactions to foods or medicines that can mimic an allergic disease.

 

Symptoms of allergic disease

Symptoms of an allergic disease can be mimicked by other diseases of different organ systems: in asthma - heart disease or stomach disease with gastroesophageal reflux, in food allergies - diseases of the digestive system ... Cross allergic reactions (eg allergic person) can also occur in the same person. may respond to particular types of food on the pollen of certain plants or vice versa). Because of all of the above, making the right diagnosis is often difficult to prolong and starting the right treatment.

 

Symptoms that indicate the allergic nature of the disease:

 

proven existence of some of the allergic diseases in other (especially close) family members

seasonal onset of symptoms with recurrence for several consecutive years

year-round onset of symptoms with occasional exacerbations

symptoms persist or recur for more than 2 weeks

allergic rhinitis has an itchy nose (and eyes), no colds in the cold

there is no relief in allergic rhinitis after sneezing, and in infectious rhinitis, sneezing leads to relief

onset of symptoms always after staying in a certain area (dust, mold)

onset of symptoms always after contact with a specific substance (food, medicines)

 

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