أ

Business

Asthma - Causes, Types, Symptoms and Treatment

Asthma - Causes, Types, Symptoms and Treatment 

Asthma - Causes, Types, Symptoms and Treatment


Bronchial asthma, bronchial asthma (Lat. Asthma bronchiale) is a chronic pulmonary disease in which there is reversible airway obstruction due to inflammation and hyperreactivity of the bronchial trunk. Bronchial hyperreactivity is a property of the airways that responds intensely to minimal amounts of stimuli, which do not cause the airways to narrow in healthy people. Reversibility means that the obstruction is not permanent but comes and goes.

 

The disease occurs in episodes, alternating periods in which there are no symptoms of asthma with periods of acute disease - asthma attack. Asthma attacks are exacerbated by inflammation, when a person is exposed to an environmental irritant. The inflammation in the lungs is constant, but when the intensity is low the patient has no symptoms, and when the intensity of the inflammation increases the symptoms of the disease also occur.

 

An asthma attack (broncho-obstruction) is manifested as shortness of breath and shortness of breath, chest pressure and shortness of breath with possible audible wheezing when breathing, and occasionally a cough.

 

Asthma in children

It is estimated that 5% of the entire population and almost 10% of children have asthma. Asthma in children is twice as common in male children. Asthma in children is most commonly allergic asthma, and the first asthma attack usually occurs by the age of five.

 

In developed countries of Europe, asthma is the most common reason for admission to childhood hospital and the incidence of this disease has increased dramatically over the last twenty years.

 

Asthma is a disease that shows a tendency to inherit and is more common in some families. Atopy is a term that denotes a genetically determined tendency for type 1 allergic hypersensitivity reactions (asthma, hay fever, atopic dermatitis).

 

The risk factors for developing asthma in a child are:

 

positive family history of atopic diseases (asthma, hay fever, atopic dermatitis),

prenatal risk factors (eg, maternal smoking during pregnancy),

postnatal risk factors (eg, breastfeeding, air pollution, frequent infections),

immediate causes (eg physical exertion, cold air, hyperventilation, aspirin, emotional stress).

 

Asthma - Causes and Types

We distinguish two main types of asthma by cause.

 

Allergic asthma

Allergic asthma is a form of asthma in which an asthmatic attack is a result of a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction (anaphylactic type) and is aroused by exposure to the allergen from the environment. Allergic asthma is the most common form of asthma.

 

Characteristics of allergic asthma:

 

occurs at an earlier age, the first asthma attack usually occurs by the age of five,

there is a family tendency to develop the disease - atopy,

positive tests for allergens,

other atopic diseases (rhinitis, dermatitis) are often present.

The most common allergens (provoking factors for asthma attacks) are:

 

allergy to dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus,

pollen allergy to plants (grass, weeds, trees),

allergy to the hair, feathers and epithelial waste of domestic animals,

mold allergy,

less frequent food allergies.

Asthma can be year-round in people who are allergic to mites and molds or seasonal in people who are allergic to pollen.

 

The onset of asthma can also be caused by tobacco smoke, respiratory tract infection, air fresheners, as well as intense emotional reactions.

 

Treatment for allergic asthma consists of a combination of an anti-allergy drug (antihistamines) and a drug to reduce airway resistance (e.g., ventolin).

 

Learn more: Allergic asthma - symptoms, treatment, hidden dangers

 

Non-allergic asthma

Non-allergic asthma is caused by mechanisms that are not immune and are not mediated by type 1 hypersensitivity. The etiology of the disease itself is not yet known.

 

Non-allergic asthma characteristics:

 

occurs at a later age,

there is no positive family history of similar diseases,

allergen tests are neat,

IgE is not elevated.

The most common causes of bronchospasm (bronchial obstruction) and non-allergic asthma attacks are:

 

physical exertion,

exposure to cold (cold allergy, cold asthma),

medications (usually acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin - aspirin asthma),

chemicals from the work environment,

pulmonary infections.

 

 

Asthma - symptoms

Asthma is characterized by periods without symptoms (remission phase) and disease accrual (asthma attack).

 

Asthma - Attack

Asthma attack is a basic feature of bronchial asthma. Asthma attacks can be of varying severity, from mild and short to severe and long lasting. Asthma attacks usually occur at night or in the morning and occur suddenly.

 

Symptoms of asthma are:

 

dyspnea, shortness of breath (shortness of breath, hunger for air, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, inability to breathe out completely),

pressure in chest, tightness in chest,

cough,

wheezing - whistling in the lungs, playing in the chest,

itching of the skin in the front of the neck,

rapid breathing - tachypnea,

rapid heart rate - tachycardia,

difficult speech,

annoyance,

activation of accessory breathing muscles - the patient sits forward, struggling for breath,

allergy symptoms in allergic asthma - sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes

Due to lack of air during intense seizures, the face and lips can flood and cyanosis occurs.

 

Status asmaticus is the most severe form of asthma attack and is defined as an asthmatic attack lasting more than 12 hours and cannot be suppressed by standard anti-asthma therapy.

 

Learn More: Dyspnea (Shortness of breath) - Meaning, Types and Treatment

 

Asthma - diagnosis

An asthma diagnosis is made after extensive patient treatment:

 

history - information about the attack itself, other allergic diseases, family incidence, etc.,

clinical findings of the lungs - auscultation of the lungs, with the progression of the disease you can hear bronchial whistles,

laboratory findings - increased number of eosinophils in the blood (eosinophilia), determination of IgE antibodies,

spirometry - the basic method in the diagnosis of asthma, explained in more detail below,

nutritional and inhalation allergen testing - skin allergy test (ID test, prick test).

 

Spirometry - Pulmonary function testing

Spirometry is the basic test for pulmonary function testing, which measures the volume and velocity of exhaled air.

 

Spirometry gives us a definitive diagnosis for two of the most important obstructive pulmonary diseases: asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis).

 

Obstructive pulmonary disease is an obstruction to the passage of air into the lungs - obstruction (bronchial obstruction), in asthma caused by bronchospasm - contraction of the muscles in the bronchi that reduce the diameter through which air enters the lungs.

 

Spirometry is a painless scan that takes about ten minutes. The search is performed by blowing air into a spirometer, which later computes the lung volume and lung capacity.

 

The most important value determined by spirometry is FEV1, the so-called. volume of air exhaled in the first second of exhalation, expir. FEV1 values less than 80% of the expected normal value for a given age and gender are considered pathological.

 

The main difference between asthma and COPD is that asthma is a reversible bronchial obstruction (not permanent but intermittent), while in COPD, bronchial obstruction is permanent.

 

During spirometry, asthma is diagnosed by giving the patient a bronchodilator inhaler (usually Ventolin), and if the capacity of the lungs and the volume of exhaled air are increased after administration of Ventolin, the obstruction is reversible and the patient is suffering from asthma.

 

Bronchoprovocation - methacholine test

The metacolin test is used to diagnose hyperreactivity of the bronchial trunk. Bronchial hyperreactivity is a property of the airways that responds intensely to minimal amounts of stimuli, which do not cause the airways to narrow in healthy people.

 

Bronchial hyperreactivity is a major determinant of asthma.

 

The bronchoprovocation test is performed by giving the patient methacholine, followed by spirometry. In patients with asthma, there will be a sharp drop in exhalation volume during the first second of exhale (FEV1) after administration of methacholine.


أ

Post a comment

0 Comments

أ