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INCREASED CHOLESTEROL IN THE BLOOD

 INCREASED CHOLESTEROL IN THE BLOOD

INCREASED CHOLESTEROL IN THE BLOOD


Cholesterol is a necessary component of the body, required for the normal functioning of each cell. It is a structural element of all cell and intracellular membranes, and in certain organs it has special, specific roles such as: synthesis of cholic acids in hepatocytes, synthesis of steroid hormones in the adrenal and reproductive glands, transport of liposolubile vitamins (A, D, E and K) .

 

Cholesterol, like all sterols, contains the carbon skeleton of cyclo-pentano-perhydro-phenanthrene, with the -OH group in the orientation relative to the -CH3 group on the C10 atom.

 

The origin of cholesterol in the body is twofold (endogenous and exogenous). Most cells have the ability to synthesize it themselves, and another source of it is the food they consume. It has been found that about 2/3 of cholesterol is produced by synthesis in the body (in an adult about 800-900 mg a day), and only 1/3 is ingested with food. Given the ability of the organism to produce it in large quantities, it is sufficient to feed about 150-300 mg a day with food.

 

Most cholesterol is generated in the liver, and its synthesis can occur in the intestinal mucosa and the adrenal glands. From there, it is transported to the body's cells via the bloodstream.

 

Because it is insoluble in water like other lipids, cholesterol is transported in the blood by binding to proteins to build lipoproteins. There are several types of these lipoporoteins. They are divided by density into:

- VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein), very low density lipoproteins

- LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein), low density lipoproteins

- HDL (High Density Lipoprotein), high density lipoproteins.

 

Elimination of cholesterol from the body is done via bile (conversion to cholic acids), dandruff of the skin, a small amount is lost with urine, while breastfeeding women lose some cholesterol over milk.

 

Its concentration in the blood is closely related to the metabolism of fat in the body, and it depends on a number of other factors: first of all, the way of diet, inheritance, hormone function, ie. glands with internal secretion, function and integrity of vital organs such as liver and kidney.

Cholesterol values

Normal blood values: 3.10 - 5.5 mmol / l

A detrimental effect is manifested only when present in the blood at significantly higher concentrations than normal. Increased food intake of cholesterol affects the value of its level in the blood.

 

It is elevated in diets rich in fat:

- initial stage of hepatitis,

- obstructive icterus,

- lipoid nephrosis,

- diabetes mellitus,

- hypothyroidism

- a series of hereditary diseases (type IIa hypercholesterolemia).

 

And some drugs can raise cholesterol levels, such as. anabolics and contraceptives.

 

Reduced values are usually in thyroid hyperfunction, in some diseases with severe liver damage (cirrhosis and severe chronic hepatitis). It is also reduced in malnutrition, anemia and in the case of medication such as aspirin, estrogen, thyroid hormone.

HDL-cholesterol

Of the total serum cholesterol, about 20% is HDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol, or its subfraction, HDL2 plays a protective role. The higher the HDL cholesterol values, the better, as this cholesterol "cleanses" the blood vessels.

 

Normal values are 1.03-1.55 mmol / L

 

Increased HDL is an indicator of cardiovascular protection.

 

And the minimal decrease indicates an increased risk of atherosclerosis (deposition of lesions on the internal walls of blood vessels, leading to their blockage and diseases such as heart attack and stroke).

 

HDL cholesterol a person can willingly increase:

- smoking cessation

- by engaging in physical activity

The value of HDL is also influenced by gender (women have more because estrogen affects its increased production) and diet.

LDL cholesterol

LDL-cholesterolLDL cholesterol or “bad cholesterol” and its determination is important as a risk factor for coronary diseases and for those patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis.

LDL particles are partially removed by hepatocytes, but LDL receptors located on the cell surface play a major role.

 

The LDL particle is retracted to the liposome of the cell, and the receptor separates and moves to the membrane to retrieve new LDL particles.

 

LDL particles, upon separation from the receptor, continue to move deeper into the cell and the Apo protein is broken down into amino acids, and the cholesterol esters are hydrolyzed, cholesterol is released to serve:

- for the construction of the cell membrane;

- it is re-esterified;

- stored in a cell;

- Leaves the cell (in hepatocytes for bile synthesis);

 

The amount of cholesterol to be found in a cell is determined by the number of LDL receptors, which is based on the negative feedback principle. Increased cholesterol in the cell prevents LDL receptor synthesis, and decreased cholesterol in the cell is generated by inhibiting LDL receptor formation. Therefore, LDL receptors are responsible for the removal of LDL cholesterol from the plasma, and the number of LDL receptors is the key to regulating LDL cholesterol in the plasma.

 

Normal values are 1.55-4.53 mmol / L



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