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Anemia, iron deficiency and vitamin C

 Anemia, iron deficiency and vitamin C

Anemia, iron deficiency and vitamin C


Sideropenic anemia is caused by insufficient amount of iron in the body and is the most common form of anemia. In the case of a major deficiency of iron, supplementation with iron-containing foods is too slow and the use of iron preparations for the treatment of the underlying disease is determined.

Anemia, iron deficiency and vitamin C

There is a lack of iron in the body

Vitamin C

Iron intake and metabolism

The needs of the organism for iron

There is a lack of iron in the body

Causes of iron deficiency in the body:

 

Chronic bleeding

Difficult absorption in the digestive tract (after gastric surgery, diarrhea)

Increased need for iron (during growth, lactation, pregnancy)

Iron deficiency in food

The required amount of iron for adult men is 1mg and for women in the generative age about 2mg. Daily foods should contain 12 to 15 mg of iron, as it has been shown that 10% of iron is absorbed from food. The main sources of iron in food are legumes (beans, soybeans, peas, beans), parenchymatous organs (liver, spleen, lungs), cereals, leafy vegetables, meat and eggs.

 

Vitamin C

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, formerly known as ascorbic acid) is structurally similar to glucose and in most animals can be synthesized from glucose. Humans and other primates cannot synthesize vitamin C, and they must ingest it with food.

 

L-ascorbic acid is subject to reversible oxidation and reduction. This property of vitamin C is the key to understanding its role as a redox agent of biological oxidation. It participates in iron metabolism, as a powerful reducing agent, and maintains the iron and copper ion in enzymes in the required reduced form. C Vitamin is essential for collagen formation and tissue repair in the body. After oral administration, vitamin C is rapidly absorbed from the duodenum, upper intestine and through the mucous membrane of the mouth. The total body supply of Vitamin C is estimated at about 1.5 g; 3% of the stock participates in daily change.

 

Vitamin C passes through the placenta. Newborns have higher levels of C vitamins than mothers. Vitamin C and its metabolites are mainly excreted in the urine. Vitamin C is excreted in breast milk and if the mother is taking sufficient amounts, children who are breastfed do not need additional administration.

 

Iron intake and metabolism

A person weighing 70 kg has approximately 3.5-4 g of iron in the body. About two-thirds of this iron is in hemoglobin (hemoglobin iron). Almost a third of iron in a healthy organism is in reserves, in the mononuclear-macrophage system, primarily the liver (400 mg), bone marrow (290 mg) and spleen. It is a relatively small portion of iron, approximately 4%, in the muscles, and is involved in the construction of myoglobin (myoglobin iron), and the rest of the iron is in various enzymes, such as catalases, peroxidases, lactic dehydrogenase, and others (enzymatic iron), where it has approximately 40 mg. , ie. about 1% iron.

 

The body does not produce iron, so it is brought into the body by food. If there is not enough of it in food, a man develops a deficiency of iron, ie, withropenia. The average daily food intake is from 10 to 15 mg of iron, which is almost whole in trivalent form, ie in ferric compounds. Iron cannot be absorbed in trivalent form but must first be reduced to divalent form, ferro-iron. An exception is iron in heme (muscle, liver). Hem is absorbed and only iron is released intracellularly into enterocytes. The conversion of iron into the divalent form takes place mainly in the stomach and the initial part of the small intestine, in the duodenum. The reduction of ferric iron to ferric iron has no effect; it helps dissolve food but does not affect the reduction of iron.

 

Iron, which is reduced in the stomach to a divalent form, under the influence of reductive substances, such as vitamin C, is absorbed in the stomach, in the duodenum, to the middle of the small intestine. Iron enters the cells of the intestinal epithelium (enterocytes) and from these cells enters the circulation. If the iron stores are empty, the iron is not retained in the cells of the intestinal epithelium but immediately transitions to the plasma; if they are full, the iron that has entered the plasma cannot be transferred to the reserves, but with transferrin it returns to enterocytes and begins to precipitate in these cells as ferritin (a compound of the protein apoferritin and trivalent iron). The degree of enterocyte saturation with ferritin acts as a mucosal barrier to further iron absorption.

 

During the day, serum iron levels drop, so in the evening it is approximately 25% less circulating than in the morning. This cycle is reversed in people who work at night. When iron enters the body and into the circulation, it goes first to the bone marrow, where it is most needed; that's where hemoglobin builds up and erythrocytes build up. Transferrin transfers iron to its poles. It transfers it to the erythroblast so that it binds to the transferrin receptor and the molecule is introduced into the cell by pinocytosis.

 

The released iron in the mitochondria is incorporated into the heme. About 6 grams of hemoglobin is generated each day, which requires 20 mg of iron. Other unused iron (about 30%) serves as a spare iron. In stock, iron is stored bound to ferritin and hemosiderin. Ferritin is a water-soluble complex of iron and protein with a molecular weight of 465,000. Under normal conditions, almost all of the reserve iron is in the form of ferritin, and the amount of hemosiderin increases in the body's body build-up of iron. Iron is in ferritin and ferro form hemosiderin. It is mobilized from the complex by reduction by vitamin C to the ferro form, and ceruloplasmin catalyzes the oxidation of ferric iron to the plasma transferrin binding.

 

The needs of the organism for iron

The body manages iron very rationally. Iron that has once entered the body is practically no longer capable of exiting the body physiologically. The body's needs for iron are therefore small. This is true, however, only for an adult male, in women at the age of fertility, the loss is greater, because a woman loses her iron every month. Therefore, iron metabolism in women and men differ. Iron loss in men is on average 1.0 mg in twenty-four hours, and in women it is about 2 mg. It follows that the daily need for iron in women is almost double, at 2.0-2.5 mg. In women, pregnancy should also be considered. Any normal pregnancy for a woman is a further loss of which 300 mg of iron (bleeding at birth and placental iron), not counting 400 mg of iron for the fetus, compensated for by the absence of menstrual bleeding during pregnancy.

 

As women need more iron than men, it is understandable that women experience more sideropenia and sideropenic anemia. The average person's daily mixed foods contain 10 to 15 mg of iron. Man, however, uses only 10-15% of iron from food, which means that 1.0-1.5 mg of iron is absorbed from normal, mixed foods. A healthy normal-eating man can therefore neither become sideropenic nor anemic, as he receives and absorbs enough to compensate for the daily loss of 1.0 mg of iron. Sideropenia in a woman does not have to mean illness, in most cases it is a disproportion between the amount of iron a woman loses during her period and the amount of iron she receives and uses from food.


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