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When and how are fruitful days calculated?

 When and how are fruitful days calculated?

 
When and how are fruitful days calculated?

"Fertile days, how they count, how they identify themselves ..." are questions that often interest women. Every woman should be familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the female sexual system. Knowing her own body, the functioning of the reproductive organs, the menstrual cycle, hormonal events in the cycle, and in this connection certain symptoms she has for a woman help her to accept these symptoms as physiological, and at the same time help her to know with high confidence when they are fertile and when the infertile days are cycle. He can use these insights as a form of protection against unplanned pregnancy or with a view to achieving a faster pregnancy.

When and how are fruitful days calculated?

The female sex system

The physiological basis of the menstrual cycle

Changes in the ovary and uterus under the influence of the pituitary gland

How to calculate fertile days?

Calculation of ovulation calendar

Basal temperature measurement

The Billings Ovulation Method - Recognition of Fertile Mucus

Extra help in identifying fertile days

The female sex system

The ovaries have a dual role - sex hormones are synthesized and the egg matures.

Female genitalia are: ovaries (ovaries), fallopian tubes (uterine tubes), uterus (uterus), vagina (vagina) and vulva (vulva).

 

The ovaries are paired organs about 3 centimeters in size, located along the lateral walls of the pelvis. In the ovaries after the birth of a female newborn there are about 1-2 million so-called. the primordial follicles in which the eggs are. By puberty, a large part of these follicles atrophy, collapse and there are about 300-400 thousand at the beginning of puberty. With the onset of puberty, these follicles will mature and start to mature eggs, or so-called. the ovarian cycle and the related menstrual cycle. The ovaries have a dual role. They synthesize sex hormones and ripen the egg that is released by ovulation in each cycle.

 

In the middle of the pelvis is the uterus from the uterus to the ovary, the fallopian tubes are provided.  The fallopian tubes are narrow tubes that accept the ovum after ovulation and with their internal flutters bring them to the so-called. the ampullary part where fertilization eventually occurs and then the fertilized ovum to the fallopian tubes reaches the uterus. In the uterus, the fertilized egg is implanted and the basic function of the uterus is to develop and grow the fetus until birth. The vagina serves as a copulatory organ, as a birth canal, and through the vagina menstrual blood flows outward.

 

The physiological basis of the menstrual cycle

By puberty, the ovaries are dormant, there is no steroidogenesis, sex hormone synthesis, and no ovulation. Ovarian function is triggered by the onset of puberty by the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, follicle stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Under the action of follicle-stimulating hormone, the follicle enlarges in the ovary, multiplying the so-called. granulosa cells of the follicles in which the sex hormones (primarily estradiol) are synthesized and in which the egg is matured. Estradiol acts on the uterus, ie the mucous membrane of the uterus  - the endometrium and promotes its growth, proliferation and the endometrium that proliferates to a thickness of 8-12 mm after the menstrual period 1-2 mm thick by the middle of the cycle.

 

In the middle of the cycle, there is a sharp increase in the luteinizing hormone of the pituitary gland, which affects the increased secretion of the cervical glands, and mucus in the vagina becomes profuse, transparent and stretchy, and at the same time a sharp increase in the level of the LH hormone leads to bursting of the mature follicle and ovulation. This first phase of the ovarian cycle, characterized by the growth of the follicles, is referred to as the follicular phase, followed by the ovulation phase in the middle of the cycle . After spraying the follicles and ejecting the egg, some blood is poured into the pelvic follicle, resulting in so-called corpus rubrum, followed by the action of the luteinizing hormone corpus luteum (yellow body) which, in addition to estradiol, secretes the greater amount of the hormone progesterone.

 

Progesterone causes the so-called secretory changes in the uterine endometrium making the endometrium suitable for receiving a fertilized egg and at the same time pregesterone relaxes the uterine musculature, ie. relaxes her. Both of these effects have a beneficial effect on the early development of pregnancy, and we call progesterone the hormone protector of pregnancy, which is used extensively in clinical practice in the prevention of early miscarriages. It should be emphasized that progesterone also acts on the thermoregulatory center in the brain, and as a result of this action, the body temperature of the woman at this stage of the cycle is slightly elevated. This third phase of the ovarian cycle is called the luteal phase and luteal phase.

 

Changes in the ovary and uterus under the influence of the pituitary gland

If pregnancy does not occur after 10-12 days, the yellow body atrophies, estradiol and progesterone levels drop and menstruation begins.

In short, throughout the reproductive period, women have three stages in her ovary:

 

Folliculin phase  - follicular growth-synthesis and estradiol secretion

Ovulation phase  - follicle spraying and oocyte ejection

Luteal phase  - yellow body formation-synthesis and secretion of progesterone

At the same time, changes in the action of these hormones occur in the womb, so the menstrual cycle in the womb goes through two phases:

 

Proliferation  - under the action of estradiol

Secretory  - under the action of progesterone

We must not forget the fact that these changes in the ovary and uterus take place due to the action of the pituitary hormone - the follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone and that a surge in luteinizing hormone is necessary for ovulation. Also, this sudden increase in luteinizing hormone causes increased secretion of mucus by the cervical glands and mucus becomes abundant, rare and stretchable. This is the so-called fertile mucus . Only in the conditions of fertile mucus present can spermatozoa penetrate the vagina ascending to the uterus and fallopian tubes and fertilize the egg.

 

Unless pregnancy occurs, the yellow body atrophies after 10-12 days, estradiol and progesterone levels drop, and uterine bleeding occurs - ie. menstruation. The fall in estradiol and progesterone is a signal to the pituitary gland to begin to increase FSH secretion and begin a new menstrual cycle. These cyclical changes are repeated throughout the reproductive phase of a woman's life except during pregnancy.

 

How to calculate fertile days?

If a woman learns to recognize changes in her body during the menstrual cycle, she can easily and reliably determine when she is having fertile days. These facts are based on the so-called natural methods of contraception are: calendar, temperature and Billings method.

 

Calculation of ovulation calendar

The calendar method of  calculating fertile days is based on the fact that the period from ovulation to the next menstruation is always stable for 14-15 days, while the first part of the cycle is unstable and can last for 7-21 days. A woman should record the duration of the cycle for six months and calculate these fertile days by pattern - first fertile day: shortest menstrual cycle -3 days, last fertile day: longest menstrual cycle +3 days.

 

So, if a woman has a 28-day ovulation cycle, it is a 14-day cycle and her fertile days range from 11-17 days, since sperm live about 2 days and a ratio of 2 to some and 3 days before ovulation can lead to fertilization. Furthermore, the egg cell lives for up to 2 days and the ratio of 1-2 days behind ovulation can lead to fertilization. If a woman has a shortened cycle (eg 24 days) ovulation is probably on the 10th day of the cycle, so her fertile days are 7-13 days of the cycle. If a woman has a cycle of 32-33 days ovulation is 18-19 days of the cycle. and its fertile days are 15-22 days of the cycle. If a woman has irregular cycles then this method for calculating fertile and infertile days is unreliable. Calculate your fertile days .

 

Basal temperature measurement

The temperature method is based on the increase in basal temperature due to the action of progesterone.

The temperature method of  calculating fertile days is based on the fact that progesterone, which is highly synthesized and secreted 1-2 days after ovulation, causes, by acting on the brain's thermoregulation center, an increase in the so-called basal temperatures. Basal body temperature is a measured value of temperature after a minimum of 6 hours of sleep, before getting up and in conditions where a woman is not ill and her temperature is elevated.

 

The basal temperature is about 36.4-36.7 ° C in the first, folliculin phase of the cycle, and about 36.9-37.2 ° C in the second, lutein phase of the cycle. If a woman measures temperature over several cycles each morning and writes on the temperature calendar, she will clearly notice that temperature jump in the second phase of the cycle. As the temperature rises after ovulation, a woman should protect herself from menstruation in the first phase of the cycle until the temperature rises and for 2 more days, after which she is safe on barren days.

 

The Billings Ovulation Method - Recognition of Fertile Mucus

The Billings method uses the fact that luteinizing hormone stimulates the cervical glands to enhance the secretion of mucus.

The Billings method of  identifying and determining fertile days is the most accepted and safe method today. It is used by couples who use the method as a natural contraceptive method while avoiding relationships on fertile days, and are also used by couples who wish to have a targeted pregnancy relationship as soon as possible.

 

The Billings method uses the fact that luteinizing hormone stimulates the cervical glands to enhance the secretion of mucus that becomes abundant, translucent and elastic. These characteristics have mucus 2 days before ovulation and another 2-3 days after ovulation. If a woman takes a bit of this mucus from her vagina, she will notice that she can stretch it between her thumb and forefinger. After 3 days of ovulation, mucus becomes scarce, cloudy and cannot be stretched. Due to the increased fertile mucus, the woman also feels the increased humidity of the vagina and vagina.

 

So, if a woman evaluates the mucus characteristics of the vagina every morning, she will clearly know the differences in fertile and infertile days. Today, there is the World Organization for the Billings Ovulation Method (WOOMB) and the Australian Research and Reference Center for this method (OMR & RCA). These institutions base their work on quality and authentic teaching of this method worldwide, and according to these institutions, around 50 million women in the world today use this method in more than 80 countries.

 

Therefore, fertile mucus can be recognized by women during the cycle. Difficulties arise when a woman has frequent infections when on other days she has increased secretion. But this increased secretion due to infection still has different characteristics and does not have the elasticity seen only in fertile mucus. In addition, the woman usually has other symptoms such as burning, itching, redness and irritation.

 

Extra help in identifying fertile days

Women who still feel insecure about subjective evaluation of fertile mucus may additionally use aids to determine fertile days such as a mini-ovulation microscope and an LH test.

 

The mini ovulation microscope  is based on the fact that mucus is abundant, rare and stretchy on fertile days, but with different chemical properties than on infertile days - therefore, if the mucus is viewed by microscope, different images are seen on infertile and fertile days. On barren days, women see dots and dashes in the field of view of mini microscopes, and on fertile days, crystals are like ferns in the forest. When a woman learns to distinguish these different images in the field of vision for 2-3 cycles, she can fully rely on the determination of fertile days, and she also sees that the fern crystals are seen when the vagina and vagina humidity is increased and the mucus is abundant, rare and stretchable.

 

The LH test  is a small appliance that records the level of luteinizing hormone in the urine. With the appliance comes test strips that are immersed in urine and then placed in the appliance. In low luteinizing hormone conditions, one dash or "minus" sign appears, and in high luteinizing hormone cases two dashes or "plus" sign appear. So the test is positive or negative, and a positive test shows that a woman is on fertile days.

 


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